Devastation documented: 'Life and Limb' shows Civil War toll

Jane E. Schultz poses for a picture.View print quality image
English professor Jane E. Schultz stands at the "Life and Limb: The Toll of the American Civil War" exhibit in the Ruth Lilly Medical Library. She will give her talk, "Surgical Silences: Civil War Surgeons and Narrative Space," at noon Wednesday, Dec. 5, in the library. Photo by Tim Brouk, Indiana University

"No tongue can tell, no mind conceive, no pen portray the horrible sights I witnessed."

The quote is from an unnamed wounded soldier in 1862 during the Civil War, and it is among the horrors of the war presented in a visiting exhibit, "Life and Limb: The Toll of the American Civil War," from the National Library of Medicine. The six panels will be displayed through Dec. 29 on the first floor of the Ruth Lilly Medical Library.

The display effectively reinforces the toll and sheer numbers behind the devastation of the Civil War.

"For certain regiments, out of 1,000 people, only 150 came back," said Jane E. Schultz, a professor of English at IUPUI with expertise in 19th-century American literature, culture and medicine.

An on-set consultant for the PBS series "Mercy Street," Schultz will give a talk, "Surgical Silences: Civil War Surgeons and Narrative Space," at noon Wednesday, Dec. 5, in the Lilly Medical Library.

Complementing the "Life and Limb" exhibit, Schultz's talk will focus on surgical interactions. According to the National Library of Medicine, the number of wounded was about the same as the number of casualties throughout the war -- about 500,000.

"Life and Limb" features rare drawings and photos from the Civil War. Images courtesy of the National Library of Medicine

Localized pieces from the library's archives are displayed on the third floor of the library in conjunction with "Life and Limb." An authentic surgical kit featuring amputation knives and handsaws in a small carrying case sits next to the Jan. 9, 1906, issue of the Indiana Medical Journal, which features early Indianapolis physician Dr. William H. Wishard's account of his Civil War experience.

"What I'm looking at are the ways surgeons wrote about their experiences with patients," Schultz said. "They change from a clinical register if they're talking to their colleagues to a far more personal narrative if they're keeping written documents for their wives to read later. This material is recorded in letters and diaries at the National Library of Medicine, the National Archives and the Library of Congress."

Dispelling myths

While movies and television shows have successfully captured the brutality of the war and the bravery of the soldiers and surgeons, the medical lens is sometimes blurred. Sue London, Lilly Medical Library's research librarian, cringes for more than one reason at movie scenes in which a Union or Confederate soldier is about to get a limb amputated without real anesthetic, usually held down by a fellow soldier for dramatic effect.

"Not the case," she countered. "Ninety-five percent of the time, they used chloroform or ether. They were dosed lightly, as the operations were brief. The light anesthesia, not pain, caused the patients to move about while insensible."

Photography and artists' renderings of such scenes were often staged, Schultz added. Research has shown that war operations were private matters, giving the patients dignity and allowing the surgeons to concentrate on their harrowing work.

'Honorable scars'

The panels from the National Library of Medicine display rare photos from the front as well as portraits of survivors, who are usually missing a limb or two. The exhibit shows surgical methods and the advancements in prosthetics and products created for the hundreds of thousands of men who were wounded. One example: A combined fork-and-knife eating utensil was made for those missing an arm.

According to the exhibit, veterans were given $50 toward a prosthetic arm and $75 for a leg from the federal government.

Postwar innovation

The years following the Civil War saw the establishment of the nursing profession. Schultz, who taught a Civil War literature class last spring, has studied women's roles in the war, namely assisting surgeons and caring for the wounded post-surgery. Gangrene and other diseases were responsible for many more deaths than were bullets and cannon fire, she said.

"As people understood the enormity of the problem, more and more women were needed," Schultz explained. "They would take care of the soldiers at the bedside, feed the soldiers and bring medicine. Occasionally they would help on some kind of operation."

Many soldiers suffered after the war, but some wounded veterans were able to live full lives after surgery with the help of prosthetics. Their bravery helped them earn jobs, and some even held elected office.

The survivors also spurred the government to establish welfare and war veteran financial assistance. Because the pensioning system was not standardized until after the war, most disabled veterans had to wait for the assistance that could have helped them sooner.

Scholars like Schultz are still researching one of America's most brutal eras. The estimated 60,000 surgeries that occurred during the Civil War are still bringing interest and visceral reactions 150 years later.

"Studying this aspect of the war really helps us see advancements in medical technologies in the era," Schultz said. "People might have occasionally seen what amputation saws looked like, but the pictures of the amputees, the crutches, the human factor of this, I think, effectively conveys the traumatic impact of the costs of war."